Electronic Ludo

 

Project Experience:
It was a great learning experience. We wanted to make something simple yet interactive, in a way that gets the attention of the masses. I remember going to Prof. Dhananjay with a rough schematic where I had multiple chips controlling different aspects of the design which he discarded outright. The next few days were instrumental in creating the final schematic and also taught me a lot about efficient, modular and ergonomic design.

The initial idea looked something like this in Google’s 3D view software:
ludo1

 

After quite a few iterations on paper and eagle for the schematics and board layouts, we decided on having two boards stacked onto each other to distribute the complexity of the design. The boards were manufactured with the help of a local PCB vendor, Daljeet Singh. The board on the bottom would be the control unit responsible for majority of decision making and data crunching required; and the top board would be the eye candy, the necessary game controls and visuals along with the necessary drivers (PNP transistors) for the LEDs.

The bottom board, pre-fabrication looked like this:
bottomBoard

This consisted of the voltage regulation, 8085 (the brain), 8155 (the arms and legs), the EPROM and some other necessary peripherals required for the working of the system. The top board, as described above was the eye candy. It consisted of LEDs that would show the position of the current player, the number a player got on the dice and a few switches for controlling the game flow.

topboard

The two boards were stacked upon each other using burgstrips. After a few evenings spent on testing the LEDs and soldering everything together, the final shape of the board was ready. A top view of the real hardware can be seen as under.

Image
and a side view demonstrates the stacking of two boards over each other using pinheads.

Image

The schematic, layout and source code may be downloaded from here.

It was game time now. We had to write the software for this giant now. Along with time multiplexing between the different LED channels, we had to constantly monitor the switches for input and have a random number generator for the dice as well. Roughly the algorithm can be summarized as under:

algo

The subroutine for the LEDs could be implemented in the main loop or using the timer interrupt from 8155 timer. I chose to use the former, even though the diagram shows otherwise.

The programming had to be done by creating the binary from the assembly and then flashing it to an EPROM (yeah, the one you have to erase every time with a UV light). After numerous days of struggling with the 8085 simulator and many flashes of the code (and waiting for the code to be erased after ejecting the EPROM from the board and placing it in the UV eraser), it worked! We were able to satisfactorily play a few games of ludo, all that with an 8085.

It was one hell of a project, loads of learning and the realisation that every time I can flash new code to a microcontroller using a mouse-click, or use an At-tiny controller with just 6 I/Os and a few minutes of routing, it’s awesome! 🙂

List of all components used is as under:
8085 Microprocessor
8155
ROM (27128)
Latch: 74373
Regulator: 7805
NAND Gate: 7400
LEDs 3mm – 80
Transistors
BD140 – 14
BD139 – 6
Burgstrips: 2 (both Male and Female)
Crystal Oscillator: 6Mhz
Push button Switches 2

Project Video Link:
The following video unveils the beast 😛